Oolong Tea (Half Fermented Tea)

Oolong Tea (Half Fermented Tea)

About Oolong Tea

Fermentation:  Semi-fermented
Growing Regions: Fujian, Guangdong, Taiwan
Best Seasons To Purchase:  Spring and Autumn
Pharmacological Elements: caffeine, flavonol, tea polyphenol, vitamin C and E, catechins, carotene and minerals such as zinc, selenium and florin

Most Popular Varieties:
1. Iron Buddha (also called Tie Guan Yin, Chinese Oolong, Buddha of Mercy, Gun Yam)

2. Da Hong Pao (also called Wuyi Cliff Tea, Big Red Robe)

3. Taiwan Oolong (also called High Mountain Oolong)
In the family tree of Chinese teas, Oolong Tea which is semi-fermented, lies between un-fermented Green Tea and fermented Black Tea (called Black Tea in the West but actually known as Red Tea in China). The range of fermentation varies from 8% to 70%. Oolong is sometimes written as Wulong but the meaning is the same: Oo (Wu)means Black and Long means Dragon. Oolong Tea is also known in China as “Qing Cha”.

According to the growing and processing region, there are four major categories of Oolong Tea :

1. Northern Fujian Province:  Wu Yi Tea (also called Cliff Tea or Rock Tea)

2. Southern Fujian Province: Tie Guan Yin (also called Chinese Oolong, Iron Buddha, Buddha of Mercy, Gun Yam)

3. Guangdong Province:  Phoenix Oolong (also called Dan Chong Tea)

4. Taiwan: Tung Ting, High Mountain, Alishan, Baojung

Production of Oolong Tea

Oolong Tea has 7 processing steps:


Picked leaves are spread out (inside and/or outside in the sun) to soften the cell walls of leaves. This draws the moisture to the surface for evaporation, softens the leaves, begins natural enzymatic fermentation and sets up the next stage of processing. This also reduces the grassy taste of tea leaves.

2.Tossing/Bruising (Turning Over)

Known as “Shaking” in Chinese, because in the old days, the leaves were simply shaken in a wicker basket. Today, this step is done with the aid of machines to further break down the leaves by mechanical means (as opposed to chemical means as in “Withering”). This improves oxidation and mixes chemical elements from the stems with the leaves, removing bitterness and balancing the flavour of the tea.

3.Oxidization (Partial and Full)

This step used in Oolongs and Black Teas continues the natural process of fermentation by allowing the leaves to rest after the Withering or Tossing/Bruising (Turning Over) steps. The time allowed determines the amount of fermentation for the tea being made. At this point, the leaves turn to a darker green or even a red colour, due to the breaking down of the cell structure of the leaves. It is at this stage where the tea begins to develop its grassy, flowery or fruity taste characteristics.

4.“Kill-Green” (also known as Fixing”)

Stops the natural fermentation and growing processes within the leaves without damaging them.  Steaming the leaves, hand pressing in a hot pan and baking techniques are used. This also sets up the next step for Rolling/Forming the leaves.


Leaves are passed through hot and/or cold rollers to slightly break down the leaves, which establishes the shape of the leaves and intensifies the tea flavour.


Establishes the final moisture content of the leaves, stops fermentation, prevents mold growth, removes any grassy leaf taste and develops the tea’s aroma.  Sun drying, pan heating and hot air methods are used.


(Oolongs) Various methods of roasting in a pan or a basket with charcoal or electric heat are used to give a smoky flavour or a fruity characteristic.

A Quick History of Oolong Tea

Oolong Tea as we know it today is the result of a long evolution, originating during the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907)  in the Beiyun region of Phoenix Mountain (Fenghuanshang) in Fujian Province. It was first known as Beiyun Tea and because of its fine quality and unique flavour, it was the first tea to be made a tribute tea, in the Song Dynasty (960-1279). In the tribute custom, tea regions were selected by the Emperor to produce tea to be offered as a gift to the royal court, which was a great honour and good for business.

In time, government officials, monks and scholars began visiting and emigrating to the Fujian area and were surprised with the strong “earth-stone” taste of the teas from the Wuyi Mountain region, so different from the un-fermented Green Tea which was the only tea that existed in China to that point. These teas came to be known as Wuyi or Cliff Tea. Hearing of this wonderful new tea, the Emperor sent a sample of an un-fermented compressed Green Tea cake to Wuyi and asked for tribute tea. What he received was Dragon Phoenix Compressed Tea which was made from a mold which imprinted the tea cake with the design of a dragon and a phoenix. This tea became very famous as a result.
The fame of Wuyi teas spread far and wide and continued to be designated as a tribute tea throughout the Ming (1368 – 1644) and Qing Dynasties (1644 – 1911).

In 1725, tea producers in the Anxi region of Fujian adapted the methods of making   traditional Wuyi Tea and improved the technology to develop a new tea – Oolong. In 1796, Oolong Tea was introduced to the Northern Fujian region and to Taiwan, where today, each region is well known for their distinctive Oolong Teas.

Oolong Tea And Health Benefits
1. High Antioxidant
2. Cancer-prevention
3. Weight loss
4. Polyphenols prevent tooth decay
5. High source of Vitamin C, good for the skin
6. Can reduce skin irritations
7. Can improve the performance of enzymes that break down fat and increases fat metabolism
8. Can lower cholesterol
9. Muscle relaxant in the bronchial tract
10.Can regulate body temperature


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